Ans: Vitreous is a thick transparent gel like substance that fills the eyeball between the lens and retina .It contains 99% of water and rest is a mixture of collagens, proteins, salts and glucose.
Ans: No, symptoms may appear in the beginning/early stage. Yearly fundus/retinal screening is very important for early diagnosis and treatment to prevent vision loss.
Patient may experience floaters and blurred vision at advance stages.
Ans: Long duration of diabetes, uncontrolled diabetes & frequent fluctuations blood sugar levels are most important risk factors. Other factors include hypertension, chronic kidney disease, deranged cholesterol levels.
Ans: 1) Good control of Diabetes Mellitus(DM) and other factors like blood pressure, cholesterol levels help in preventing diabetic retinopathy.
2) Regular/annual retina/fundus examination by retina specialist.
Ans: It is the layer at the back of eyeball that contain cells sensitive to light. They send impulses through optic nerve to brain.
Ans: For retina checkup, the pupil are dilated(expanded) with the help of drops which are instilled in both eyes. The drops are put every 15 mins for up to 5-6 times and it takes about 45 to 90 minutes to achieve the full effect. It’s after this the retina specialist examines your retina, this test is also known as fundus examination.
Ans: For retina checkup YES.
Ans: No, Due to dilatation. Person experience blurring of vision and its not safe to drive.
Ans. Common symptoms of retinal disease are sudden loss of vision, distorted vision, floaters and flashes, peripheral shadows.apart from this individuals who have DM,HT, high myopia should undergo retina checkup every 6-12 months. Anyone more than 40 years should get a retinal check up every year.
Ans: Floaters are small specks of debris that move in and out of you field of vision. They are black and move with your eye movement
Ans: Age, Diabetes are common causes of floaters.
Ans: Retinal detachment(RD) can happen to anyone at any age, however it is more common over the age of 40. It is commonly seen in people who had cataract surgery, myopia, eye injury, family history of RD, had RD in other eyes.
Ans: Mostly floaters are harmless, but are warning signs to get eye check up. In DM and HTN can be due to blood in eye. After PVD chance of retinal break is there. So we should not avoid floaters.
Ans: When retina pulls away from layer of blood vessels that provide it with oxygen and nutrient symptoms include floaters and flashes and appearance of certain or shadow in front of Eye. It’s an emergency. If not treated it leads permanent loss of vision.
Ans: Treatment depends on configuration of retinal detachment multiple options like pneumatic retinopexy, scleral buckling, vitrectomy are available but type of RD and associated pathology decide the choice of surgery.
Ans: Improvement starts in 2 weeks after surgery. Retina may continue to heal for a year or more and it may take months to stabilise after surgery.
Ans: 1) Treatment depends on stages of diabetic retinopathy.
2) Initial stages may require regular retina checkup and good Blood sugar controlled.
3) In advance case retina laser is done to prevent bleed from new vessels.
4) More advance cases with persistent bleed and retinal detachment may need retina surgery.
5) Diabetic macular oedema may require Intravitreal injection (injection in the eye) and lasers.
Ans: It is degeneration disease of control part of retina (which is important for clear vision) due to increasing age. It is of two type wet & dry.
Ans: floaters do not require treatment root of the time. But underlying pathology/disease will need appropriate treatment.
Ans: 1) dry ARMD cases treatment include multivitamins and micronutrient to reduce the progression of disease.
2) wet ARMD is treated with the help of intravitreal injection and in few cases with special type of lasers known as PDT.
Ans: it is occlusion of flow of blood in retinal veins. main risk factors for vein occlusion are hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes. Vein occlusion can lead to macular edema or formation of new vessels. which may eventually lead to blood in the eye
Ans: Central serous chorioretinopathy is the disease in which fluid is collects under the center of retina. Fluid leaks from the blood vessel layer under the retina. It is strongly associated with raised steroid levels within the blood stream.
Ans: optical coherence tomography is a non-invasive diagnostic test used for imaging of retina. it helps in early detection of any disease. It is used to diagnose macular disorders like ARMD, macular edema, macular hole, CSR.
Ans: Fundus Fluorescein angiography is a procedure to examine the tiny blood vessels in the eye.A dye called fluorescein is injected in your arm and serial photographs of eyes are taken. Dye highlight the blood vessel in the back of eye.